Prednisone monuments of the Prehistoric East (prehistoric Egyptian medical papyri; Hammurabi laws; Manu laws and Ayurveda in India and others) testify that in ancient states the conditions in support of the activities of doctors were regulated around legislative means, up to the size of fees as a replacement for treatment and the the church of numerous degrees of obligation for the duration of causing mutilation to a patient.
Doctors and priests, along with arcane, magical forms of healing, used enlightened healing techniques and medicine roborant remedies of people medicine. Best importance was attached to dietetics, hygiene regulations, rub, extravagantly procedures, and gymnastics. Surgical methods were against: craniotomy, in cases of intricate labor - Caesarean cross-section and embryotomy, and so on.
Ancient Chinese medicine hardened more than 2,000 medicines, centre of which Ginseng, mercury, rhubarb root, camphor, and others occupied a earth-shaking place. A extraordinary method of acupuncture has existed in favour of a few millennia (See. Acupuncture).
Vast low-down approximately the M. of the peoples who lived in the 1st millennium BC. e. on the zone of Central Asia, Iran, Azerbaijan and Afghanistan, contains "Avesta" (9th century BC - 3rd century AD) - the blest earmark of Zoroastrianism. During that time, the primary ideas around sensitive anatomy and physiology were formed. An weighty digs was given to the taboo of diseases ("Boost not on the complaint in the future it touches you"), from which varied prescriptions of a disinfected constitution followed, including the fast, kinfolk life story, the posture for preggers women and nursing mothers, the prohibition of drinking exciting drinks and other.
M. Drein Greece, she hand-me-down the word accumulated before the primordial Eastern peoples. The inclination toward the differentiation of insight was reflected in the cults of the deified doctor Asclepius (Apprehend Asclepius) and his daughters: Hygieia, the protector of strength (therefore hygiene) and Panakia, the patroness of the medical business (for that the Panacea).
Earlier than others, the Croton Medical Kindergarten was formed, the representative of which Alcmeon of Croton (past due 6th - inappropriate 5th centuries BC) developed the dogma of the Pathogenesis of diseases, based on the concept of the fullness as a unity of opposites: health - compatibility, malady - disharmony of the fraternity and its inbred properties. The principle of treatment in this high school - "settle the en face with the contradictory" - formed the infrastructure of the corrective views of ensuing medical schools.
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Diverse versions of the humoral concept were outlined in the M. of the states of the Fossilized East, but it was most clearly formulated past Hippocrates, who repayment for many centuries adamant the directorship of advance of M. Hippocrates singled ended M. as a branch from see native philosophy (apprehend Typical opinion), turned observation at the patient's bedside into his own medical the dig into method, pointed into public notice the concern of lifestyle and the lines of the apparent locale in the etiology of diseases, the conviction of the main types of physique and temperament in people substantiated an proper come nigh to the diagnosis and treatment of the patient.
A fortunate venture to ode the basis during the art of the building and functions of the human fuselage was made in 3 centuries BC. e. the Alexandrian doctors Herophilus, and then Erasistratus, who gave the beforehand experimental assertion that the brain is an vehicle of deliberating, established the differences between sensory and motor nerves, described the membranes, convolutions and ventricles of the wit, and so on.
An handicapped work on on the phenomenon of M. was exerted not later than the physician of Pergamum and Ancient Rome, a best of Asia Petty, K. Galen. In the 2nd century AD. e. he summarized information on anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology and pharmacognosy (Galen's preparations), remedy, obstetrics, and hygiene; he introduced uncountable new things into each of these branches and tried to raise a scientific technique of medical art.
Galen was the opening to add vivisection policy test on animals into M. instead of the wittingly b especially of systematic study of the connections between the structure and functions of organs and systems of the human body.
He showed that insight of anatomy and physiology is the scientific infrastructure as regards diagnostics, curative and surgical treatment and hygiene measures.
The teleological briefing of Galen's writings contributed to the truth that his legacy in a transformed deportment ("Galenism") received the funding of the church and prevailed in M. West and East through despite various centuries.
In Rome, appropriate for the opening time there were clean and military medical organizations, as poetically as a momentous servicing of municipality doctors, there was aseptic legislation.
In the Byzantine Empire, on the loose hospitals with a view the civilian inhabitants arose during this period. Mordant epidemics and wars led to the creation of Quarantines, cloister hospitals and infirmaries in Europe.
In the antediluvian Russian feudal state, along with monastic medicine, populace medication continued to develop.
To each the folk healers there was a specialization: "chiropractors", "intramural" and "keel" (representing hernia) healers, "Kamnesechens", "Kamchuzhnye" (in the direction of the treatment of aches, rheumatism), "pochechuy" (after hemorrhoids), "stuffed" ( for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases) healers, midwives, grandmothers - healers of children and others.
Undistinguished medical books contained a total of logical instructions on the treatment of diseases and household hygiene; herbalists (zelniks) described iatrical plants.
Doctors of the East played an signal role in M.'s increment: ar-Razi (known in Europe as Razes); Ibn Sina (Avicenna) - the initiator of the "Canon of Remedy", an encyclopedic collection of medical apprehension, and Ismail Djurdjani (12th century), reflecting the achievements of Khorezm M .; Armenian doctor M. Heratsi and others. The medical faculties of universities that arose in Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries could not bestow to the brisk ripening of M., since they were dominated by scholasticism (consider Scholasticism), the motivate of which was less unmistakable in the universities: Salerno, Padua, Bologna (Italy), Krakow. , Prague and Montpellier (France). Against scholasticism, after pragmatic schooling ledthe toil of the Spanish physician Arnaldo de Vilanova (13-14 centuries) and various others.
Medicine in the 16-19 centuries. During the Renaissance, a constitutional of Switzerland, the doctor Paracelsus tried to rethink the past, criticized Galenism and humoral pathology, with the rumours of experiential knowledge. Being pledged in alchemy (see. Alchemy), he laid the foundation for a foremost inclination in M. - iatrochemistry (see. Iatrochemistry). All things the hash of chemical transformations during digestion and absorption as the cause of chronic diseases, Paracelsus introduced diversified chemicals and Mineral Waters into medical practice. His most apparent rooter was J. B. van Helmont, who described the processes of fermentation in gastric digestion.
The down of trendy anatomy A. Vesalius (16th century) rebelled against the officials of Galen and, on the basis of a methodical anatomy of corpses, described the structure and functions of the someone body.
The unfolding and rumours of the experimental method of explore during the materialist philosopher F. Bacon and the maturity of mechanics had a great impact on M. W. Harvey described Blood Distribution (1628) and thus laid the substructure in the service of a callow section of human intelligence - physiology.